Indoor Gardening for Beginners

Indoor Gardening for Beginners

The pleasure and thrill of indoor gardening are immense for everyone. particularly those who lament the lack of open space for gardening Indoor gardening is a richly rewarding pastime. In recent years, house plants, which can thrive in houses have become increasingly popular for interior decoration. They form an integral part of decoration in a home or building. They add charm to the architectural beauty of the house and complement the interior setting.

Though in the early days Greeks and Romans grew a few plants incisors house plants became popular only after World War II. The Scandinavians and the Americans are the pioneers in indoor gardening. The modern architectural designing, air-conditioning. central heating and built-in planters have facilitated the growing of plants indoor in many countries, in recent years. The dwellers in big cities who do not have open space for gardening find the indoor gardening a useful and absorbing hobby. It is now a common practice to keep a few living plants, both foliage and flowering, inside homes, offices, shops, banks, restaurants, clubs, hospitals and schools. The house plants which enliven the indoor environment, are the best link between man and nature.

The Place of House Plants in Indoor Gardening:

House plants may be placed either in suitable groups as bold accents or in singles as spotlights depending upon the size, color and style of rooms. Another important consideration is the scale. An impressive group of bold leaved plants set against a big wall will be more appropriate to scale than a small single plant. In a smaller room, single plant specimens appear more attractive and in better proportion to their setting. The delicate-leaved ferns or bright colored flowering plants are more suited to an interior decor in the home than the tall, broad leaved “tough” plants like Monstera, Sansevieria, Dieffenbachia, Dracaena and Rubber Plant which can be more impressive and harmonious to the surroundings in an office.

The red pink or orange flowered plants like Amaryllis or Chrysanv themum or those having vibrant colored foliage. like Coleus and caladium should be placed against a white, light-colored or neutral wall while against a dark background white flowered plants or those having variegated white foliage, like Caladiums may enliven the surroundings. Plants having delicate and finely-cut foliage like ferns or those with small flowers such as.

Begonia semperflorens are generally kept at a closer distance than others or set against the bold and rough textured plants so that these could be seen to best advantage and admired at a close range. The large broad-leaved Monstera, Philodendron or Rubber Plants can be an attractive foil to the ferns having delicate lace-like foliage. While grouping the plants their height should also be taken into consideration.

Tall plants are best placed at the back, medium tall in the center and dwarf or trailing in the front. If the group is to be placed in a hall where it may be viewed from all sides, the tall plants should be kept in the center with medium-tall ones arranged around them and the dwarf ones along the edge. Sometimes potted plants of some seasonal flowers in bloom like Aster, Chrysanthemum, Cineraria, Salvia, Nasturtium etc. or bulbous plants in flowering such as Amaryllis, Freesia, Lily, etc. and colorful foliage plants of Coleus and Caladium can be grouped inside the room by bringing them from outside to produce a quick and effective display.

However, such arrangements are temporary and require replacement when the plants have finished their flowering or passed their best stage. These seasonal or bulbous flowers may be either purchased from a local nursery or raised in the home. Flowering plants look very impressive in association with foliage plants. Both harmonious and contrasting combinations of plants can be planned keeping in view their texture, size, color and pattern of flowers and foliage. With several attractive and widely divergent forms of house plants that are available now, the choices of grouping them in suitable and glamorous combinations with personal ingenuity are many.

The Containers and Planter:

The plants can be grown in earthen pots, glazed clay, porcelain or plastic pots and in large wooden planters, barrels, troughs or tubs. The potted plants may be placed on the floor, window-sill, window-ledge, table, shelves and trolleys or in window boxes, planters, both on stand and built-in on the floor or at the floor level in sunken beds and wall brackets. Often the earthen pots are kept inside a planter made of brass, wood, reed, ceramic or fiberglass for an attractive display. The color, size and texture of the containers should harmonize with those of the plants and the interior decor of the room.

Colorful Window-Boxes :

Nowadays the modem homes and apartments have built-in Window boxes in which foliage and flowering plants can be grown. These boxes are permanent rectangular structures constructed as projections outside the windows. These can also be made of wood and fixed outside the window. With suitable plants they provide a splash of color to be enjoyed from inside as well as from outside the window. These often enliven the drab and bare walls and surroundings.

A better practice is to place potted plants inside the window box than to plant directly in it. The advantage in this method is that the plants can be placed or removed according to the need and also help to overcome the difficult task of changing the soil in the box when it becomes sick. The flowering plants should be grown in pot outside and placed in the window-box only when they are in bloom or have attained sufficient size. In such an arrangement the plants which are not found to thrive or have finished flowering. or have been old and lanky can be replaced with some other suitable subjects easily.

It is thus always possible to have a colorful display of flowers and foliage and to alter the plant arrangements frequently to break the monotony of any particular type of display. The box should have proper depth so that the pots placed inside are not visible from outside. Besides the plant height color and size of foliage, flower color and size and the time of flowering, the situation (whether sunny or shaded) is equally important in choosing the plants.

Table Garden and Miniature Landscapes:

The table garden is very fascinating and rewarding. With suitable arrangements of appropriate types of small house plants in a dish, bowl, trough, terrarium or bottle, it is possible to create delightful miniature landscapes for indoor decoration. It is an exciting hobby to plant these long-standing lilliputian gardens which can serve as elegant table decorations. A desert or woodland scene, rock garden or formal garden scene can be created with the use of miniature plants light inside the room.

Use of pebbles and stones in the desert scene or small weathered rocks, moss etc. in a rock garden produces natural effects. In formal garden designs, small garden paths using small piece of slate, green lawn raised from seeds and cut occasionally with small nail scissors and miniature flower beds and plants can be used effectively. The planters, particularly the large troughs are often fitted with legs and castors so that they may be placed at suitable corners in the room and removed occasionally outside to the verandah or balcony to provide sunshine to plants whenever required.

While placing the table or dish garden at vantage points in the room their placing must be given thoughtful consideration. For a sunny placing they should be kept near the south window, while a north window is suitable for shade-loving plants and cacti, succulents and some other plants requiring medium light can thrive well on the east or west side. If the room does not have sufficient light inside, it is advisable to provide artificial light to the plants. Generally two 40-watt frosted day light lamps or fluorescent tubes placed about 30-45 cm above the plants and lighted for about 16 hours daily can supply enough light for the proper growth of plants.

Bowl and Dish Garden:

Large glass-bowls are also used for growing plants. The mouth of the bowl is kept closed by putting a glass-cover over it. In a dish, trough or shallow bowl, the plants are grown without being covered by a glass as in a terrarium or bowl, Small plant arrangements using suitable types of plants illustrating a particular landscape in a miniature form can be designed in a large dish or trough.

Cacti and Succulents are excellent subjects for creating desert scenes by planting amidst small pieces of stones and pebbles. It is advisable to plant cacti and succulents in separate dishes or bowls instead of putting them together. Due care must be taken to allow some extra space for the growth of these plants in the dish and overcrowding should be avoided. Similarly Araucaria, pine seedlings, small maiden-hair fern, Selaginella and some other small plants can be effectively utilized in producing woodland scenes.

The plant compositions should be rhythmic and simple with proper harmony in color, texture and form of leaves, flowers and plants. Sometimes for a contrast, variegated or marbled foliage may be included in the plant arrangement. While grouping the plants in miniature gardens due consideration must be given to their light and water requirements, plant height and growth habit.

The plants grown in a receptacle should have similar requirements of water and light and preferably also have similar growth habit so that the fast growing plants may not smother the slow-growing plants. Usually foliage plants are used for long lasting effects but sometimes a combination of both foliage and flowering plants may be more delightful.

Regular and proper watering and light are essential in maintaining the plants indoors in a healthy condition. After two or three years. when the plants outgrow or lose their form, it may become necessary to undo the arrangement and create the composition again with small young plants.

Terrarium:

A terrarium is a rectangular glass case with a cover, inside of which small plants are grown for indoor decoration. The size of the terrarium varies according to the need. Aquarium cases can also be utilized fol, this purpose. The terrarium has a glass-cover at the top which is removed occasionally to provide ventilation which is necessary for the growth of the plants. Since the terrarium is closed the Plants do not require frequent watering as the moisture from the transpiration of leaves and soil evaporation condenses on the glass, returns to the soil and becomes again available to the plants. If there are not drainage holes at the bottom of the terrarium a layer of coarse sand and small charcoal pieces about 3-6 cm thick may be spread at the bottom before filling in the soil mixture consisting of equal parts of soil. leaI-mould and sand.

The arrangement of plants in the terrarium should be planned before planting. The young and small plants should be firmly planted and watered carefully. Thereafter the top of the terrarium be covered to conserve moisture which will also help the plants to get established quickly. Overcrowding of plants should be avoided and some space between the plants should be left to provide a little room for them to grow later. Very fast and vigorous growing plants should not be included for planting as they may outgrow quickly and smother other plants. With a proper choice of plants and careful watering, the plants in a terrarium may live for several years without replacement. However, sometimes one may have to replace those plants which get smothered by other vigorous growing plants or which die due to diseases or insect infestation.

Bottle Garden:

A carboy is ideal for growing small plants as in a terrarium. Dwarf maidenhair and other ferns, Selaginella, Pilea, Tradescantia etc. can be grown successfully in a large bottle. Before planting, the bottle must be thoroughly cleaned with soap and water and made to sparkle by rubbing it with a clean cloth. A mixture of coarse and crushed charcoal may be poured into the bottle to form a 3 cm thick layer at the bottom and later a mixture of equal parts of soil, sand and leaf mould through a paper funnel.

While introducing the soil mixture, care should be taken that it does not cling to the sides. Small plants can be introduced with a fork or a desert spoon tied to a thin bamboo cane with wire or tape. With these small tools it is not difficult to manipulate the soil around the roots of the plant. After planting, the plants should be watered lightly with a tube and the bottle corked tightly. While planting great care should be taken to avoid sprinkling soil over the leaves of the plants. Any soil resting on the surface of the leaves can be washed off with a fine sprayer. The bottle-garden like a terrarium requires very little watering.

Pots and Containers :

Earthenware, glazed clay, China (porcelain) and plastic pots, dishes, shallow bowls and troughs in various sizes and shapes like round, rectangular, square, oval, elliptical, oblong, cone-shaped, or heart shaped are commonly used for growing indoor plants. A variety of pottery containers in contemporary designs is also available in many shapes.

However, earthenware pots are less expensive and being porous provide better aeration of the soil than plastic or ceramic pots. Brass or copper receptacles, which become hot quickly in summer, are not suitable for growing plants in tropical climate. Sometimes large plants may be grown in cement or wooden barrels or planters. The wooden planters should preferably have castors for easy movement, whenever required.

The pots or containers may be plain or ornamental in design depending upon the interior furnishings of the room with which these should harmonize in color as well as in texture. The pots and other receptacles must have drainage holes at the bottom. It is necessary to stand the pots on platters. A group of pots may be placed on a metal tray. The water drip after watering will collect in these platters and trays.

It would be better to stand the pots on a block of wood or on pebbles and stones in the platter to avoid direct and constant contact of plants with water which is harmful for the growth of plants. Besides it also provides adequate humidity to plants, particularly during summer. The potted plants kept on stands or wall brackets should be watered carefully by placing a tray or dish below them for collection of excess water.

The individual pots may be placed inside a metal, plastic or wooden planter. Reed or cane basket or baskets of round, rectangular or hexagonal shape made of wood, cloth or raw silk can also be used. The pots may be placed on metal plant stands. The plant stands and wall baskets may hold a single pot or more. The drooping plants are ideal for growing in wall brackets. A tea trolley is commonly used for keeping small pots.

The potted plants are also displayed on wall shelves, wall racks or book shelves. For providing artificial light, the wall racks, trolleys, planters or shelves can be fitted with either fluorescent tubes (40 watts) or incandescent or frosted bulbs (40-60 watts) about 30-45 cm above the plants. The plants in a dark place require artificial light for about 16 hours a day. African violet and Gloxinia can be grown exclusively under artificial light.

Care of House Plants:

A proper environment is essential for the healthy growth of plants and it varies with different house plants. The success in growing a house plant depends largely on the ability of the grower to provide a satisfactory environment. The proper environment of a plant comprises light, temperature, humidity, water and nutrition. All these factors are interrelated. Besides diseases and insect pests also affect the health and quality of the plants.

Light:

Plants require light for their growth but the intensity of light needed by them Is not the same. The plants requiring plenty of sunlight are Croton, Coleus, Caladium, Rubber plant, Geranium, Poinsettia,  Kalanchoe, Begonia and a few other flowering plants, those With medium light requirement are Ferns. Peperomia, Scindapsus, Dracaena and those requiring low light are Aspidistra, Aglaonema, Sansevieria, Pedilanthus, Philodendron and Syngoniurn. In general, green foliage plants require less sunlight than those with variegated or colored leaves. The plants requiring plenty of sunshine grow best on a south window while those needing medium light may be placed near east and west windows and the shade loving plants on the north side of the room.

If the room does not get sufficient sunlight it should be supplemented by artificial light. Fluorescent tubes, two of 40 watts each, and one or two incandescent lamps, 40-60 watts each may be placed about 30-45 cm above the plants and illuminated for 16 hours a day will provide sufficient light for the growth of plants. Spotlights when placed at appropriate sites but not too near the plants can be functional as well as useful to accent the plants.

The plants grown in poor light conditions will show symptoms of etiolation, weak growth pale leaves and lanky growth. The older leaves die and drop off and the new ones become smaller in size. When the partial-shade-loving or shade-loving plants are grown in bright sun their leaves get scorched, becoming brown and drying later. The plants should be grown in shade or partial-shade for acclimatization before they are brought indoors.

Temperature:

Day temperatures between 18° to 24°C with night temperatures about 10°C lower are best for the growth of most of the house plants.

The foliage plants, Dracaena, Nephthytis, Philodendron, Indian Rubber Plant, Scindapsus, Aglaonema, ferns, Caladium, Coleus and Cacti and succulents thrive best at a higher temperature (21°-27°C) than Begonia. Geranium fuchsia and Poinsettia which require a cooler temperature (15°-21°C). The injury to house plants is usually due to warmer temperature and not due to cold, at the plants generally grow satisfactorily up to a temperature of 15°C. The heat injury results in weak and spindle-shaped growth of plants and browning of leaves.

Humidity:

A relative humidity of 40 to 60 per cent is best for the growth of plants. The humidity to some extent is related to temperature. During summer the humidity can be increased by occasionally spraying line mist of water on the foliage sponging the leaves with water and placing the pots on wet moss, moist sand gravel or pebbles kept in platters of trays. Low humidity may cause tip burn in leaves of foliage plants like Dieffenbachia and Dracaena.

Watering:

One of the main causes for the injury or mortality of house plants is improper watering either inadequate or over watering. The requirement of water varies with different house plants. Cacti and succulents need less frequent watering than Cyprus (Umbrella Plant) and Calla which can grow even under wet conditions. Generally the plants with thin leaves require more water than others. Besides this the frequency of watering will also depend on the stage of plant growth, size of the plant in relation to its pot type and size of pot, season, soil or medium used, light, room temperature, humidity and position of the plant in the house. Small pots which dry out more rapidly require more frequent watering. Plants in flowering need more water than those in young stages of growth or those which are newly potted. During summer, when the temperature is high and humidity low, plants require watering more frequently than in winter when the temperature is low and plant growth in general is slow. A heavy soil with plenty of clay requires less frequent watering than a sandy loam soil.

Wilting is often a common indication of insufficient soil moisture but it may also be due to constantly saturated soil. A plant removed from a dark comer to a sunny situation may also show signs of wilting.

Pots can be watered both from top and bottom. Watering from the bottom can be done through a wick or by half submerging the pot in a shallow bowl or basin of water or by placing the pot in a saucer full of water. In these methods, the water rises up through the bottom hole and as soon as it reaches the top soil, remove the pot from water, drain off the excess water and place the pot again at the site where it was before.

Watering from bottom is better than that from top as it avoids overweening and it is preferable for cacti and succulents, African violets and Gloxinia. It is always a good practice to saturate thoroughly the soil while watering and then again water it when it is on the verge of drying but not completely dry. Light watering daily may lead to accumulation of salts at the top or side and cause marginal tip burning 0f the leaves.

Soil:

A soil mixture containing equal parts of soil, organic matter (leaf-mould  Compost or cowdung manure) and coarse sand is ideal for foliage plants. Small quantities of wood ashes, bonemeal or superphosphate and crushed charcoal are also added to the soil mixture. About one tablespoonful of bonemeal or a teaspoonful of superphosphate will be sufficient for a 15 em pot of soil. The soil mixture should neither be too dry nor too wet at the time of potting.

Feeding:

Generally the nutrients present in the medium containing soil and organic matter are adequate for the growth of house plants. The plants do not require extra feeding unless they become pot-bound. After reporting the pot-bound plant in a bigger pot or container a nutrient solution prepared by dissolving 3 gm of NPK complex or Rosemix may be applied to the plant. Feeding can be given to the plants once a fortnight.

Fertilizers or manures should not be applied during winter when the plant is resting or dormant or growing slowly, and also not on a dry soil. Soot water and liquid cow dung manure are also beneficial to foliage plants. Sometimes when pot-bound plant is not repotted, the top few centimeters of soil from the pot can be removed and replaced with a mixture of equal parts of soil and leaf-mould or finely crushed cow dung manure to which a small amount (one tablespoonful) of bone-meal is added.

Repotting:

When a plant becomes pot bound with its roots matted around the outside of its earth-ball, it needs repotting. A few plants, Such as. cacti, succulents and Aspidistra which are slow-growing, do not require frequent repotting. However. the fast-growing Geranium and Begonia require shifting to a larger pot at least once a year. The plants are generally repotted during the rainy season when it is easier for them to become established and form new roots and shoots. After repotting the plant should be thoroughly watered and kept out of direct sun until it is established.

Potting:

A pot appropriate to the size of the plant may be selected for potting. Potting in very large pots is harmful to plants as it tends to deplete the soil of its nutrients by leaching before new roots develop and occupy the soil. Before potting, the pot should be thoroughly cleaned and crooks put over the drainage hole. The plant should be set in the center of the pot and the soil filled gently around the roots. When the pot is full the soil may be firmed by pressing with fingers, leaving about 1 -2 em at the top below the rim to allow for water. The potted plant should then be watered thoroughly and placed in partial-shade until it establishes itself.

Pinching and Pruning:

In Coleus, Geranium, Pelargonium, Fuchsia and Chrysanthemum, pinching is commonly practiced by removing apical shoots or tips to encourage side growth, it makes the plant bushy. Pruning is done to control the shape of the plant or to stimulate new growth. Roses are pruned to encourage new growth and for production of better flowers. Bougainvillea, Pelargonium, Geranium and Fuchsia are generally pruned after flowering to maintain their shape while Chrysanthemum is headed back about 10-15 cm above the ground after flowering to stimulate the production of suckers. Sometimes a trailing plant, like the Wandering Jew (Zebrina pendula) or Scindapsus may require light pruning of old and dry shoots or thinning out to check its heavy growth.

Training:

Climbing plants require support to climb and for this purpose moss sticks are ideal. The moss sticks generally available in florist shops or nurseries are placed in the center of the pot and the plant is trained on it. A simpler moss stick can be made by putting a thick layer of moss around a stout stick, bamboo or polythene pipe about one metre tall and tie it firmly with a string. Vines can also be trained on a trellis, bamboo sticks or strings fixed in the pot. They may also be trailed on a trellis or strings fixed in the pot. The climbing plants are trailed on a trellis or strings to form a screen for dividing space in a large room. Tall climbing cacti and a few other climbers can be trained and supported on bamboo stakes.

Cleaning:

The foliage of house plants must be cleaned regularly by spraying with water to remove dirt dust and grease. A small amount of milk or a few drops of vinegar may be added to the washing water to improve the appearance of leaves. Application of one teaspoonful of carbonate of ammonia dissolved in one liter of water to foliage plants brightens their leaves. There are certain chemical formulations, like leaf shine and others in aerosol, available abroad, which are sprayed on leaves to give them a glossy appearance. Syringing the foliage with a fine spray of Water is also useful particularly during summer. The hairy and Silvelygrey leaves should be gently cleaned with a soft brush. The hairy leaves of African violet and Rex begonia may be gently brushed with a soft-bristled paint brush.

Propagation:

House plants are propagated by seed, stem cutting, leaf cutting, division, runner and air-layering. Araucaria, Asparagus, Cacti, Coleus, Impatiens, Kalanchoe, Bromeliad, Begonia, Calceolaria, Cineraria. Salvia, African violet, Cyclaman, Gloxinia, Primrose and many others are raised from seeds. Those multiplied by stem cutting are Aglaonem Coleus. Euphorbia splendens, Dieffenbachia, Dracaena. Ivy, fchs lyrataf Ficus elasticaf Fatshedera, Impatiens, Nephthytis, Peperomio, Philodendron. Geranium, Fuchsia and Poinsettia.

Leaf cuttings including leaf bud and leaf are used for propagating Cissus, Kalanchoe, Philodendron and Scindapsus. while in African violet. Gloxinia, Pep, eromla, Rex Begonia, Sansevieria and Sedum only leaf cutting is used. In Sansevieria and Rex Begonia a portion of the leaf can also be utilized for propagation. Plants of Coleus, ficus pumila, Aphelandra, Impatiens, Begonia (other than Rex), Dadescantia and Pilea are propagated from tip cuttings. Dracaena, Philodendron and Dieffenbachia can also be multiplied from sections (small 2.5 cm long pieces) of stem which are inserted horizontally on the rooting medium. African violet, Aglaonema, Asparagus, Aspidistra, Chlorophytum, Begonia, Boston Fern.

Bromeliads, Cyperus, Echeveria, Maranta, Pandanus and Sansevieria can be multiplied by division. Bromeliads are reproduced from offsets which are-formed on the stem under the rosette. Chlorophytum elatum, Saxifraga sarmentosa, Boston Fern and some species of Bromeliads may be multiplied from runners or by offsets. The plants which are reproduced by division can also be multiplied from runners. Airlayering is commonly practised in Dieffenbachia. Dracaena, chs elastica and chs lyrata. Any plant which is propagated from stem cutting can also be multiplied by air-layering.

Diseases:

The common diseases in house plants are stem-rot and root-rot which are found in cacti and succulents. usually caused by soil-bome fungi, leaf spot caused by fungi, bacteria or viruses and powdery mildew caused by fungi. In the case of stem-rot the affected parts may be removed and sulphur dusted on them. For the control of rootarot soil sterilization is necessary and the affected plant should be repotted in sterilized soil.

Treat the soil with formalin and cover it with a polythene sheet so that the fumes do not go outside. After about a fortnight remove the polythene sheet and stir the soil thoroughly to remove the left-over fumes, if any, This sterilized soil can then be used in pots.

The leaves showing symptoms of leaf spot (yellow and brown) should be removed and burnt. Sometimes spraying with Bordeaux Mixture helps to control the leaf spot disease. The powdery mildew which causes grayish-white powdery covering on stems and leaves can be controlled by dusting with flowers of sulphur, Karathane or Bavistin.

insect Pests:

The house plants are sometimes attacked by insect pests. Most of them can be easily picked and destroyed. The common insects are red spider mites, aphids, mealy bugs, scales, green fly, white fly and thrips.

The red spider mites, which form delicate webs and inhabit the underside of leaves of Dracaena. Azalea and rose, can be controlled by spraying nicotine sulfate, Sumithion or Malathion. The small green black aphids adhering to the new growth or buds on Begonia, rose, and some other plants during cool and cloudy weather are best controlled by a spray of nicotine sulfate and soap. Basudin, Metasystox or Malathion.

Mealy bugs forming small cottony patches on the under surface of leaves, mainly along leaf veins or at leaf axils in African violet. Begonia, Cacti, Coleus, Croton, Fuchsia, Poinsettia and Indian Rubber Plant are small sucking insects which can be removed by touching the a Erected leaves with a brush or cotton swab dipped in a solution of equal parts of alcohol and water.

Mature scales are brown, while young ones are pale green and are formed on Aspidistra, Cacti, ferns, Ivy, Palm and Indian Rubber Plant. The affected plant, if small, may be dipped in a dilute solution of nicotine sulfate or sprayed with Malathion, Metacid, Sumithion or wiped with diluted alcohol as suggested for mealy bugs. Washing the plants with plain water at regular intervals also helps to control the scales.

The brown or black Sucking thrips found on small leaves around the growing point in Azalea. Fuchsia. Cyclamen. Axum and rose. These can be controlled by spraying nicotine-soap solution. Small, white or greenish mites are also found on African violet, Cyclamen. Geranium, Begonia and Crassula. They can be controlled by spraying Sumithion or Rogor. Caterpillars may also sometimes attack some plants and these may be effectively controlled by spraying or dusting Ekalux, N uvacron or Carbaryl.

Indoor Plants:

These are also known as house plants. There are several species and , varieties of indoor plants, which include both foliage and flowering plants and also those having both attractive foliage and flowers. These have been described earlier under ornamental foliage plants, ferns, palms, bromeliads. cacti and succulents, herbaceous annuals. biennials and perennial flowering plants and bulbos flowers.

The most popular indoor plants include the following:

Ornamental Foliage Plants

Aglaonema commutatum

Araucaria excelsa

Asparagus sprengen (A. densiflorus)

A. plumosus (A. setaceus)

Aspidistra lurida

Begonia rex

Caladium bicolor

Calathea zebrina

Chlorophyuun comosum variegatum

Codiaeum variegatum var. pictum (Croton)

Coleus blumei (Coleus)

Cordyline terminalis

Cyperus altemifolius

Diefenbachia species and cultivars

Dracaena species and cultivars

Nous elastica decora (Indian Rubber Plant)

F. lyrata

F. pumila

F. beryamina

Hedera helix

Hoya camosa

Maranta leuconeura var. Kerchoveana

Monstera deliciosa

Peperomia argyreia

Philodendron species

Pilea microphylla

Pleomele reflexa

Rhoea discolor

Sansevieria trifasciata

Schefflera arboricola

Scmdapsus aureus (Rhaphidophora aurea)

Setcreasia purpurea

Syngonium podophyllum ,

Tradescantia fluminensis

Zebrina pendula

Ferns:

Adiantum capillus venerLs (Maldenhalr Fern)

Asplenium nidus (Bird’s Nest Fern)

Cheilanthes argentea (Silver Fern)

Nephrolepis exaltata var. bostoniensis (Boston Fern)

Polypodium aureum (Hare’s-Foot Fern)

Davallia bullata(Squ1rrel’s-Foot Fern)

PterLs cretica (Brake Fern)

Palms:

Chrysalidocarpus lutescens (Areca Palm)

Howea forsterlana (Kenna Palm)

H. belmorreana

Actinophloeus macarthuru

Phoenix roebelinii (Pygmy Date Palm)

P. rupicola

Pritchardia grandis

Rhapts excelsa pvtstona chinensis

L. rotundifolia

Thrinax argentea

Cycad

Cycas revoluta

Bromeliads:

Aechmea fasciata

Cryptanthus bivittatus (Earth Stars or chameleon plant)

Billbergia nutans

Nidularium innocentii

N. tricolor

Neoregelia spectabilis (Painted Fingernail Plant)

N. carolinae

Vriesia splendens (Zebra Plant)

Tillandsia lindeniana

Cacti and Succulents:

Cephalocereus

Echinocactus grusonii (Golden Barrel)

Echinocereus

Ferocactus

Gymnocalycium mihanovichii friedrichii (Red Cap)

Mammillarla

Rebutia

Zygocactus truncatus

Succulents:

Agave

Aloe

Beaucarnea recurvata

Bryophyllum

Crassula

Echeverla

Euphorbia milii

Kalanchoe

Pedilanthus

Sedum

Sansevieria

Flowering Plants:

Aoalypha hispida

Anthurium scherzerianum

Aphelandra squarrosa

Azalea

Begonia

Beloperone guttata

Hoya carnosa

Fuchsia

Impatiens

Orchids

Pelargonium (Geranium)

Poinsettia pulcherrima

Primula

Rose (miniature)

Saintpaulia ionantha (African Violet)

Chrysanthemum

Cinerarla

Salvia

Gloriosa superba

Amalyllis

Narcissus

Zephyranthes

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