The modern roses were wild. Botanists call them the species of the genus Rosa, part of the family Rosaceae. Taxonomists specialists who classify roses debate the issue, but they generally agree that too to is are true species. How the species evolved, possibly from one or two ancestors, can only be answered by extensive DNA analysis. Since that process is quite expensive, the answer is not likely to come soon.
Species Modern Rose Garden Thrive Today
Most species roses originated in Asia and Europe; about a dozen are native to North America. Many species roses do very well in gardens today, displaying excellent blooms, hips, foliage, and thorns. Rose hybridizes still rely on species roses as pan of their breeding line to improve disease resistance and cold hardiness. Virtually all species roses can still be purchased today. Other roses appeared by about the first century, when classical writers mentioned specific roses, including three of the five old European rose families gallicas, albas, and damasks. References to centifolias (also known as cabbage roses) emerged at the end of the 16th century.
About 100 years later, the centifolias mutated into moss roses. (The “moss” actually refers to the small growths on the sepals, the green, petal-like leaves at the base of each bud.)
Breeding hybrids begins
The first known rose hybridizing originated in Holland in the 18th century. Breeders planted roses close together, letting them naturally cross-pollinate, then harvested and propagated the seeds. Hybrid roses had been created this way in nature for thousands of years, but breeders used the same idea to speed up and improve the process.
By the end of the 18th century, a watershed in rose development arrived with re blooming roses from China. They were originally called China and tea scented China and the latter became known as tea roses. While many of these first China roses were unsuited for gardens because they weren’t cold hardy, they turned out to be significant as parents. Their desirable reblooming genes were quickly blended with species and European roses.
Chinese roses become American
In 1811, the first crosses from Chinese roses created the noisette rose family. John Champneys of South Carolina produced Champneys Pink Cluster from a cross between Rasa moschata (musk rose) and Parson’s Pink China. While this can be considered the first truly American rose, the most famous is surely Harison’s Yellow, created in 1824 from two other species. This beloved and tough rose was carried and planted by pioneers and settlers throughout the American West, where its small, fragrant flowers still bloom today. In 1817, Parson’s Pink China again played an important role. Paired with an unknown damask rose, it created a new hybrid to found the Bourbon family of roses. These large semiclimbing plants originated on hybrid Bourbon (now called Reunion), a French island in the Indian Ocean east of came. Madagascar.
Beginning in the 183os, many types of roses made their way into the bloodlines of the hybrid perpetual family. Hybrid perpetuals strong, upright plants with double, long-lasting but sparse repeat blooms dominated rose breeding until the end of the 19th century. American Beauty, immensely popular as a cut flower in the United States, is a hybrid perpetual hybridized by Henri Ledechaux of France and originally named Madame Ferdinand Jamin.
Any rose family created since the late 1800s is considered a modern rose
including the beloved hybrid tea. The name implies that it’s a cross between a hybrid perpetual and a tea, but so many rose families contributed to the earliest varieties that the original hybrid tea will never be positively identified. The American Rose Society has declared La France, a light pink rose created from a white tea and a red hybrid perpetual, to be the first. In 188o, the Horticultural Society of Lyon, France, gave the moniker Hybrides de The (French for “hybrid tea”) to roses created by English breeder Henry Bennett. The term came into general use about to years later.
Polyantha means “many flowers”
Polyantha (Greek for “many flowers”) roses, a family of low-growing plants with a profusion of small flowers, have a more definitive history. The first polyantha was the white Paquerette, introduced by Guillot et Fils of Lyon, France, in 1875. PAquerette was a seedling from a low-growing Rosa multiflom, but unlike its parent, had a repeat-blooming habit. Although polyanthas were all the rage around the turn of the zoth century, they’ve mostly fallen out of favor. However, some beloved varieties, such as The Fairy, are still available.
Ramblers and climbers appear
In 1880, Max Wichura sent a set of Japanese species plants to Europe, where they were promptly named Rosa wichuriana in his honor. These roses grew near to the ground with fairly long, creeping canes. While their small white blooms were unremarkable, their potential for breeding landscape plants was apparent. Among the first to take advantage of this potential were Americans Michael Horvath and Walter Van Fleet.
Horvath introduced Pink Roamer, a cross of R. wichuriana with the red China Cramoisi Superieur in 1897. A year later, Van Fleet unveiled May Queen, a cross of R. wichuriana with Mrs. DeGraw, a pink Bourbon. These roses, with their long, flexible canes and masses of blooms, quickly became known as ramblers.
Ramblers were widely bred during the early 2oth century. Although they don’t re bloom, they are still popular, and many arc available from mail-order sources.
Hybridizers in the early 2oth century also wanted long-caned roses with a repeat blooming habit and larger flowers. Again, they enlisted a combination of species and hybrids. Many climbers were introduced although most are now long forgotten.
The first true large-flowered climber was New Dawn, a light pink, very fragrant variety introduced in 1930. New Dawn is a sport a genetic mutation of the rambler Dr. W. Van Fleet. It blooms recurrently, with one flush following another, rather than just once. New Dawn was the first rose to receive a plant patent in the United States.
Searching for roses that bloomed in clusters like polyanthas but with larger flowers,
breeders crossed polyanthas with hybrid teas and other large-flowered types to create what they initially called a hybrid polyantha. The family name for this new rose changed from hybrid polyantha to floribunda in 1950. The first floribunda (Latin for “many flowers”) is generally credited to Danish hybridizer Svend Poulsen. His ROdhatte (Danish for “Little Red Riding Hood”), a cherry red cross of a polyantha and a hybrid tea, debuted in 1911.
World’s Fair, a floribunda, was one of the first four roses honored in 1940 by All-America Rose Selections (a nonprofit association of growers and introducers), but the public tended to ignore floribundas until Fashion was introduced in 1949 and Vogue in 1951. Both were hybridized by American Gene Roemer, who became known as “Papa Floribunda” during a 45-year career of breeding roses for the Jackson & Perkins Company.
Grandifloras arrive on the scene
Another American, Walter I ammerts, created the grandiflora Latin for large flowers” family. His Queen Elizabeth, introduced in 1954, was touted as the beginning of a new type of roses. These large, robust plants combine the spray habit of floribundas with the large, fragrant blooms of hybrid teas. Few grandifloras approach the physical stature, bloom habit, and floral production of Queen Elizabeth, the second variety inducted into the World Rose Hall of Fame, in 1979. (Peace, a hybrid tea, was the first, in 1976.)
Smaller blooms suit
other purposes Miniature roses, with blooms about 1 to 13/2 inches wide, originated from a dwarf China rose sent to England in the early 1800s. The rose was apparently lost, then rediscovered more than a century later and named Rouletii after its finder, a man named Roulet. Reeding started soon after its rediscovery. One of the first miniatures was the red Tom Thumb, bred in 1936 by Holland’s Jan de Vink from Rouletii and a polyantha. The first American hybridizer of minis, Ralph Moore, became known as the “King of the Miniatures” during more than so years of breeding hundreds of varieties.
Have no fear! Roses have a reputation with some people for being hard to grow. Not true! Many of the most recent and the very oldest roses are disease resistant. Check the tag for excellent disease resistance and repeat flowering, then water and feed these tough beauties for easy care blooms throughout the growing season.
Which roses take the most work?
He bigger they are, the more work. Miniatures generally need less tender loving care than large flowered climbers.
Alain Blanchard This variety has almost single flowers of deep purple crimson, with contrasting golden stamens, the colour later turning to a purple which is attractively dotted and mottled with pink. Its growth is thorny, about 1.2M 4ft in height, with pale green foliage. Fragrant. Probably a Gallica/ Centifolia cross. Bred by Vibert (France), introduced 1839.
Analrs Segalas This rose has perfectly shaped flowers which open flat and are well filled with petals, showing a green eye at the centre. The colour is a rich mauve-crimson, turning with age to a pak lilac-pink. It forms a low-growing, branching and free-flowering bush with light green foliage. Strong fragrance. Height 1 m / 311. Vibert (France), introduced 1837.
Assemblages desremit (Rouge Ehlouissante) Very double flowers of a vivid cherry-red, unusual amongst Gallicas; later becoming tinged with mauve, the petals reflexing almost to a ball, with a button eye at the centre. Very fragrant. Height 1.2m aft-Introduced by Deluge 4823.
Beau Narcisse A rather short and unassuming rose but beautiful in detail. The flowers are medium sized, no more than about 5cm ain across and crimson, speckled with purple, the reverse of the petals being paler. It has bushy, quite wiry growth about I aft tall. There is a good fragrance. tired by Miellez (France) before 028.
Belle de Crecy One of the finest, most free-flowering and reliable of Gallica Roses. On opening the flowers are a cerise-pink mixed with mauve, later turning to soft Parma-violet and ultimately to lavender-grey; a wonderful succession of tints.